Bloc en català

diumenge, 12 de març de 2017

Temperature and survival

Every specie is linked with the climate that it was born. Food, water or oxygen quantity determines size, shape and age to dead. When some boundary change being must change or disappear.


Imagine if in the world all our possible meal disappears and other possibilities of eat will become a poison. Yes, it’s an extreme situation which is impossible to happen in our current boundary conditions but not of all impossible with other planetary boundaries that was happened in other geological times.



Fish survive is in threat as ours

We can’t survive in Cretaceous Age, not for the existence of terrible dinosaurs but we can’t breathe the air with our current lungs; we would walk in Cretaceous Age as we are in Pandora’s Moon of the Avatar film. As us in Cretaceous, the Jurassic animals couldn’t survive in our time (even if will resucite them as Jurassic Park). The current air is an advantage, something that we can see with their direct sons: the birds which able to fly only with the strength of their wings, something of mammal couldn’t. Dinosaurs can’t survive in current age because there aren’t any bacteria that allow them digest the possible meal; yes, all of the current possible meal is a poison to them.


As I explain in ‘After storm will always be calm’, the absorption of oxygen by the lungs is proportional to the relative concentration of CO2 compared to oxygen and the surface of interchange air / blood. This surface is the summarize of all pulmonary alveolus of our lungs; obviously if the CO2 concentration in air grows our lungs must be growing their size. Luckily our body balances the current increase of CO2 in atmosphere increasing the number of red globules in blood. But it has a limit: 1,000 ppm are mortal for every person with a breath problems, the 1,500 ppm is the beginning of irreversible damage, more than 10 minutes in 4,000 ppm could kill us, and 5,000 ppm is considered lethal for us (Remember we have today more than 400 ppm). Cretaceous CO2 ranges oscillated between 2,500 – 9,000 ppm. If we want to survive then, surely we have needed a greatest lungs or to be small as Smurfs.

In the last days, some media have alarmed in front the news about the reduction of oxygen in the oceans and its consequences (Fish under threat from ocean oxygen depletion, finds study The Guardian; or The World’s Oceans Are Losing Oxygen. Here’s Why That’s a Big Problem - TIME). Even The Economist, a really refractory media to Climate Change, begins to talk clearly about it (Saving corals from the effects of climate change). The worry isn’t trivial, the world seas beans have the main resource of the more people. Until today the preoccupation was the over-exploitation of the sea resources and their exhaustion but now we are in front of the possible dying of this resources.


What are happening?
It’s very easy, in fact It’s elemental physics. Temperature drives the solubility of gases in liquids (join with the relative pressure). If temperatures rises solubility decrease. Until today the increase of relative pressure of CO2 helped to increase the capture of CO2 but the global heating of oceans is making the contrary effect. Today event the reduction of greenhouse gases emission the concentration of them increases, because water is releasing which stored in million years. The second consequence is the global reduction of the rest of gases for example oxygen.

Will seas die? No other species will take the scope leave for the missing species, something that had passed.


This isn’t a new situation in the planet. In fact, the oil that puts in threat our world, is producing in seas and lakes that oxygen disappears and all the life die even the life that mineralize the organic material. We could thing about it as a something that happened more time along but today it’s still doing for example in the Dead Sea which is an anoxic lake.

The problem isn’t the continuity of life in seas (at now and the next 3.000 million years, when Sun double his radiation, then it will be another thing). The problem is in the time too need to appear a new kind of fishes adapted to the new ocean boundaries; it will be more and humans need to eat every day.

The Economist report about the killing life in Ocean

The alimentary problem is a very important threat that we will face no more far. But somebody has thought: if oxygen isn’t solving in seas what happen with CO2? So, equal. We are crying the end of the great forests of the planet. This is a great disaster because their biological diversity protects our life, but their importance in the balance oxygen CO2 is great but not determinant. The main contributor in this balance is the sea algae. It could be amazing, but if you think a little and look what is the surface exposed to Sun, oceans have the 3/4 of the World total surface, while forest is only 30% of the 1/4 that rest. If seas don’t absorb CO2 oxygen CO2 grows to the CO2 side (Oxygen rest quasi equal because the quantity of oxygen and nitrogen of air is too high in from other gases, but if grows the CO2 the relative concentration change).


There is more other concentration that I will expose in the next post. I only want to transmit the idea about Climate Change is more than a change of weather, its hardness or its economic consequences. Climate change put us in a real threat of survive, and if we couldn’t stop it we must fight to mitigate its effects.

dimecres, 15 de febrer de 2017

Spring asthenia in fifth of February

Just started the winter when spring already here again. This is not good nor bad now because the consequences after the live.

It's over the winter. As I said a year (Spring in full in February) meteorological winter just finished in February; regardless that American’s marmots say, popular wisdom or any other ancestral sign. It’s a fact; today the summers end in November and winter is reduced to a few weeks of Christmas and January.

The asthenia is one state where the changing of climate generated a profit fall to the person who suffers. I don’t know if I suffer it but I have a low blood pressure rather sudden changes in atmospheric pressure (no matter whether upward or downward) cause me drowsy. So, when the weather changes I can predict it with relative certainty, being the current climate roulette that we’re living a considerable emotional ordeal.


This morning (5/2/17) had the soul feet, together with the change of smell general breathed in streets denoted something important: spring weather has begun. It seems incredible that after a hard January, where climate change skeptics proclaimed from the rooftops the end of global warming, has ended suddenly which finished almost two months before of astronomical winter date.

Trump's victory gave wings to the branch skeptical climate-denier in the world, demonstrating that the popular layers of society don’t believe in climate change. It’s logical that these layers are reactionary change of any kind, because all those who have little loss however small is great. What one might see it as an opportunity to improve thanks to the change layers are disadvantaged as a disaster because every loss even the little it, is great or a disaster for who have not more resources. Remove the coal and oil in our society is a great loss for the companies which enrichment but a disaster for the workers who will become in unemployed and the small businesses that have them for clients. The weather will explode by everyone, but they are going to strike of solution, perhaps scientists would mistake the forecast (as it happened other times) and the climate wouldn’t have exploded.

The problem isn’t ignorant layer of society which buys a denier speech with the innocent desire to continue doing what they did before. The real problem is the current cynical society what knows that climate change is real, but continues to maintain the attitude only because it's more comfortable or more snob. A society that enjoys little price at which these resources are provided. They know that it has an expiration date but they will not be who will leave voluntarily their comfortability and perhaps the date is so far as to let them no suffer the consequences, and then who will remain will be holding them.

It’s true that the incidence of an individual person of middle class is very small compared from a high-class person or this with only one of the JetSet. But as I explained in (perception towards climate climatic evolution), climate problems are basically of scale. This article talk about the cumulative temporary aspect of the climate, related to it the number of persons that compose the middle class is several times great that high one and middle generates more impacts, with more continuity and extension geography than high; ultimately the impact of middle social layer is thousands of times greater than all the high class.

But the most important impact of climate change is on the most disadvantaged classes. They have a ridiculous consumption and very sustainable parameters as individually and familiar. The problem isn’t the attitude of their communities, many with exemplary environmental parameters, but they are so many that the planet is in limit to sustain their pressure, although this individual impact is very small. Large corporations pollute and overexploited resources, but that ends aquifers are thirsty communities (Is fresh water ending in the World? No, we've got problems) and this affects the climate as much as CO2. The current environmental problem is not only the greed and blindness attitude of mankind but the high number of humans one hundred time more of ninety per cent of our existence.

The great paradox is that the change of attitude of a few middle class is unfortunately useless in the large number of individuals who comprise it. Much worse is when we extrapolate this to the lower classes because they have no attitude change simply survive.


We could be looking at the speed of the change, if the models are more or less right or simply to say that there is nothing to do. Surely there is nothing to do but apologize the carpe diem and waste until everything explode, isn’t a consistent attitude. The climate deteriorates at giant steeps, at same time with the nature affected by the parameters changed by climate change, nature suffer other terrible pressing of human greed.

Hard actions are needed to reverse the situation. But unfortunately, no one wants to take measures too harsh, when it depends on the votes of those who will suffer the consequences. There is the courage to say that when we get beyond our attitude should be the toughest measures taken; and we cannot postpose indefinitely them, because if we don’t that we will take these, the planet will take them for us; and believe me, you will understand then that hardness mean.

dissabte, 17 de desembre de 2016

Another time again (Christmas 2016)

Felicitació en català: Ja hi tornem a ser (Nadal 2016)

If streets are invading of color lights and music sometimes without criteria, it means that month before Christmas is here.  A month where our budgets are never overflow because we haven’t budget, and joyfully is order by law.


Joy to the World as tradition and commercial centers order; if Christmas comes doesn’t mean that any of conditions which become the World as a Hell stop to run, but they are growing in relate. Besides us or in the other side of sea people just survive or die due natural or human causes. Our World has never been perfect and humans have an innate ability to crush it even more.

Solidarity is a human virtue which doesn’t allow to enjoy while our people suffer in front us. How can we enjoy the holydays if other people are suffering? So, solidarity initiatives arise everywhere appealing to the good heart and peace of conscience. But evil never rests and profits Christmas days when we open our hearts to the next, that evil can take our heard and sell it like minced meal. Unscrupulous takes advantage of the people’s goodwill and at the same time ridicule them. It then makes it easy to turn back the disadvantaged saying "all are equal" or "living book" because the pretext of the existence of miserable allows to show our own greed.

However, Christmas is different, and solidarity expiates sin consumer abuses. Without looking too much what is it, we made small contributions to all sorts of initiatives. May we seem them small but they aren’t for those who thanks to it alleviates suffering at least for a few days.

Christmas just like everything with him and goodwill. The day after January forget that there are people suffering and return to our everyday greed justified with the excuse of their own suffering. Would be nice if it was Christmas whole year but without colored lights and old fashion Christmas carols.

So, I wish you a Merry Christmas, even a day, and better in 2017 than it has been good the past, the best is always yet to come.

Last year postcard I think to exceeded my quota of ridiculous, so I attached a conventional Carol, I hope you like it.


Bon Nadal i Bon Any  2017

Feliz Navidad y Prospero 2017

Joyeux Noël et Bonne Année 2017

Buon Natale e Felice  Anno  Nuovo 2017

Merry Christmas and Happy New Year 2017

Frohe Weihnachten und ein gutes neues Jahr 2017




dimarts, 6 de desembre de 2016

Climate perceptions towards climatic evolution

The accumulation of energy in the air and oceans will set the temperature not how much CO2 we are emitting.

It says a sentence that to become rich man you don’t need a great amount of income, only need to save a cent more than what you waste, and let the time run; needless to say, if you are rich and spend a cent more than you earn sooner or later you’ll become ruined. The two statements everyone can understand and accept as true; however it may difficult to see that a cent of profit could become you a millionaire. This is because our perception of accumulation and time isn’t correct. When he looks in perspective by years and not realize that they are far from all time periods and just getting going; if this involves a sum or a subtraction is applied.

Pole melting an other prove of Globalwarming

Balance.
As I said before it isn’t the same as a system is in balance or is stationary. As tightrope as we’re seating on a sofa are at a point where the sum of the forces, in this case gravity makes it scratch and not experience any displacement obviously this balance may be unstable and stable: Who is on the line a simple motion makes a sofa fell while we tear or hot water. Another issue is a steady state. While the balance implies stillness the other is a result of the change. A clear example is the air tubes that hold a ball suspended; the ball is actually falling, but the speed with the air produces a friction that slows proportional to this speed as happens to skydivers in freefall, to equalize the two forces (gravity, friction) but this acceleration continues to fall; as these air tubes breathe air we only need to provide enough flow velocity of the air is equal to the falling ball, the ball is a corridor that ran on a treadmill but does not move site. The temperature of the planet is this ball; Sun introduces an almost constant amount of energy on our planet (that's what we live) that the atmosphere back into space depending on the temperature, clouds, sunshine hours and greenhouse gases, being all these functional elements including dependents.

CO
2 is a greenhouse gas more, as is methane (CH4), ammonia (HN3) or the same water (H2O); being water the most dominating of all them because it is the most abundant gas of them, current temperatures allows to move it in various states and their status as universal solvent liquid play a crucial role in climate and biology (look Feedback). Historical variability of our climate on a planet which has done more before of our arrived, proves that greenhouse gases have a dynamic independent of us. Unfortunately, this is something that we tend to forget, becoming this an recursive argument of skeptics and deniers climatologists, while it’s a common misconception of the fighters against climate change: We haven’t generated any new process we just altered a bit some existing process, but this little modification can lead us consequences of global dimension. Yes, only a small alteration, but we are doing it around the world and in a lot of time.


Accumulative or static growth

A process accumulative is a process with memory.
When newspapers or TV talk about a growth of 1% per year it seems a poor increase, because we see the less amount getting every year but we forget that 1% is applied on new amount getting with the current added to increase amount; therefore, we haven’t grown in 15 years a 15% but 16% and 170% in one hundred years. Thus, a small accumulation will become devastating because its effects aren’t scalable to not being linear.


Another effect very difficult to scale are the cross-dependencies between variables. Occasionally due to fashion, it appears the word synergy which means that two factors combined have effect greater than the sum of the effects alone. Most of these synergies has been found empirically because their combination will be positive or negative we can’t deduce it a priori. The reason of it is to haven't the summability of its effects; but further studies at posterior show that the combination actives relations between other elements more than the two crossed, the result increases or mitigates their effects. This effect we call feedback. The feedback produced stationary points called attractors in chaos theory, these usually create an effect of false stability because all elements combined create a closed situation within some parameters. We have a problem when one or more of these factors go out threshold because the consequences are completely unpredictable (see Butterfly Effect). When we think with weather stations, normal rainfall and temperatures are into one of these attractors, out here what could happen surely will not like.


People don’t imagine the immense effort needed to model future climate. In this regard many of the predictions being like wrong, not globally, but estimated and values. The blame for this is that all our models are parameterized values in the mid to late twentieth century; values that aren’t valid today. If we look at the following map (Sea level according to average temperature the planet) will observe an alleged sea level depending on the variation of the average temperature of the planet compared to pre-industrial values. This map is not bad but it has many errors. First remember that the pre-industrial era was the end of the Little Age of Ice (s XVI, XVII, XVIII and XIX) and therefore the temperatures were lower than normal, argument more used by skeptics. After the ice always melts at zero degrees nor more or less degree, so the temperature doesn’t imply more or less ice undone in any case be the time that will rid the ice who scored level; this level is an extrapolation from patterns of temperature distribution depending on the average temperature of the planet, but as I said patterns these are obsolete and have no idea of what will be at + 2C , to get an idea in Cretaceous the temperature of poles was practically the same as in Ecuador. The climate at + 2C isn’t a state, the time that we stay in this temperature is accumulative and we can achieve + 2C and nothing will happen but it will pass 10 years we can only could survive locked up in caves.


The climate emergency is taking to weather forecasts cooked runs
. States need data to make drastic reforms, which involve the dramatic change in the way we live. This is where I think the Paris agreement (COP21) is completely useless. Most of measures that would applied are late, inadequate and shameful periods; to fixe something that doesn’t depend on us as: the temperature; is an insult to our intelligence. Simply I don’t think so ignorant governments, only takes the temperature as euphemism for reducing emissions without the obligation to do it, each will reduce the amount of emissions it deems appropriate to achieve this temperature and if in 20 years they have been sticking.

Variability of Ice on Arctic sea, red is current year 

The climate is our only food producer and its kindness allows us to live; but it seems they prefer the money to eat or walk in streets quietly. Surely they forget that we can’t eat money.

diumenge, 13 de novembre de 2016

Trump victory: The Paris Climate Game Over

He promised to break the climate commitments and he will do it. Because he is convinced that it is a conspiracy orchestrated by China.

We can tell about ignorance, pedantry, superb, swagger and more other qualifies of next president of USA. Trump is lucky cretin which luck puts in the top of way. There are a lot of vegetables which are occupying relevant sites in society, and every casual event allows to allows perpetuate itself there, even making deadly mistakes. But this is a very simple explanation of his triumph, adding the luckily of to be in the correct site in the correct time, there are a lot of conditions that give him the victory. We can’t talk about all of them but I will say you the consequences of this result.

Too many people are horrified with the sentences and proposes tell for him in election campaign. However, these ideas are more close with his biography acts. Who tramples stronger often wins, and he always is who tramples strongest without seeing what breaks or who crushed. There is only a little problem: sometimes floor breaks. Until today he never broke the floor, and we see the size of his current floor, the consequences will be disastrous. One part of his new floor is the climate, a glass very weak for too much brutal boot.

Donald Trump the next President of USA

He doesn’t believe in the climate change (he isn’t alone). For him climate change is one of the conspiracies that hidden powers. In fact, he points China as promotor of this conspiracy; after said this was only a joke, unlucky his thinking isn’t far of this idea. What isn’t a joke is his attitude and of his collaborators in front climate threat. They not only deny but are betting hard in fossil when prices down due divest in it. In this way, their attitude is coherent as tobacco companies versus tobacco healthy: how you could win money with something that you know it will make suffering a million people something inmoral. Moreover, fossil energy will give great profits without climate policies until mankind blowdown.

But What does it mean Climate Change for more people? Really, for more people of USA means to lose work, to lose money and to lose his comfortable way of life. If you live in a tow, you can think in use public transport or even think in easy electric charge of your cars; but if you live in an alone home in Midwest where needs autonomous power generators to guaranty electricity, a world without oil is a hell. Fracking was selling as the democratization of oil business; more small saving scared by general bankruptcy of financial system takes it as lifesaver of their money; if we leave to burn oil the only thing that will burn will be their money. But there are more people which direct or indirect work and live of carbon (oil, gas, coal…), maybe they could find work after carbon age but they prefer that this age doesn’t end. More people is manifesting in streets calling for climate, but there are more in their homes praying for their future, climate will injure everybody but the close of a mine only the families of miners.
Mundial economy is threated for the end of carbon, obviously complete mankind is also threated if we’re still burning it, but it’s evident that climate change goes to bad and great fortunes don’t want to ruin for vain. Trump is the champion* of speculative economy which expects to get rich from buying bargains on divest oil, but not only, his message against to the official thinking captured people who are fired due the social injustice with is seeing due to government (something that is true). It’s paradoxical how people ruined surely for Trump’s speculative business, voted him as a liberator.

Trump is putting hands on the work, he begins to elect who compose his govern and there isn’t good news (Climate change denier is leading Trump's EPA transition team - CBS). We must no surprise, he has said several times that he will fire out** all Obama’s legacy (Trump can't unilaterally erase Obama’s climate rules. But he can refuse to carry out the Paris plan in the U.S. - New York Times). The result of it will be disastrous because USA is the second polluter of the world, without US reduction the work of the rest is near to vain; but the worse is the polluters as USA surely leave the Paris agreement because they sign due the pressure of China and USA, if Russia or India leave Paris is only time that European Union rest alone defending agreement which is also divided for this issue (for example Spain hasn’t still signed).



But for everybody are bad news. The oil marked gets the euphoria of the good times (Trump Victory Good For Oil Investments? What Do Futures Say? – Seeking Alpha). Markets which beginning losing, now are joining to the party. It doesn’t matter if our world is near to explode  the most important is the money wining today and if the sea will sink Wall Street under its water, then we will buy floats.

*in the middle age no everyone can fight to defend his/her reason in combat. Who defends you is your champion (wins or no)
** as his reality show in TV

dissabte, 5 de novembre de 2016

The year 2016 will end with three Super Moon

This phenomenon occurs occasionally but now it will take many years to re-produce

Artificial lighting has changed our way of life. Today humanity has abandoned the night and live in what we might call as a continuous vigil. Our society has eliminated the night, and with it the show that our ancestors have lived since our arrival on the planet over 100,000 years ago. So it’s no wonder that our language has so many references to heaven, but today literally ignore it as if we lived locked in a cave, but the cave is making of light.

The Moon and the Sun preside over our sky and our references. Although the first to be more variable in both the movement and its appearance has generated more fascination. The Moon is coquettish, illuminates the darkness; and unlike the Sun, he can look face to face creating a hypnotic effect who stares at the long. At other times these moons unusual so great would be seen and commented, but are now just a simple press note. In the era of space travel we have completely forgotten the sky and what given us its study, interpretation and fascination.

Harvest Moon

What is a Super Moon? For a very large moon. Obviously the Moon hasn’t grown but we see more and this is where we have to distinguish between the actual angular size and apparent size. Without objective tools of measuring size, our brain normally assigns a size with comparison, being very efficient with nearby objects but very awkward for remote, this is normal because as more far less information, and because the dangers and opportunities are nearby; so evolution give us the precision in a few steps.

Our eyes see angular distances that our brain becomes linear. That is the reason because objects are smaller as we move away from them, but their size doesn’t diminish with increasing distance but it does the angle that we see it. Moreover there is no way of knowing the distance to an object just by looking, but our brains estimated distances How does? Just doing the reverse of the above operation: you know that size has the object and estimates the distance so small that sees it. Logically from the estimated distances the size of unknown objects, which are precisely those that interest is also assigned (especially if it’s a predator and you want to eat). This is completely automatic and transparent to our conscious.

But when we talk about the moon, sun and stars the matter is very different because we have no reference. In this sense the size of the Moon is just something apparent. Everyone have in mind those huge moons (or Sun) in the African’s plateau or rising the shapes of mountains; however if this Moon is putted little more over the horizon seems it smaller than when it was just in horizon, have both the same size in photo. This is a psychological effect due in one way the result of psychological belief that the sky is closer than the horizon and another side effect vanishing point (see illustration). Therefore in summer we have the moon a low angle with respect to the horizon, it seems that full moons are larger than in winter.

False size due Horizon and vanish point

Although the Super Moon is something more because here there is a real increase in angular size (2016 Ends with Three Supermoons (Nasa)). The Moon does not orbit in a circle but does so in an ellipse with the earth in a focus (Kepler's second law). Besides the plane of the orbit it does not have a fixed orientation relative to the Sun which thing implies that the full moon does not usually coincide with specific points of the orbits and less always coincide with the point that we are interested in Perigee (closest point to earth lunar orbit). It difficult does not mean impossible and during the months of October November and December will match the full moon with perigee, and the difference with most distances we see the full moon is large enough to observe the difference.

It would be because of our streets’ light clogged the sky, because our everyday worries don’t let to raise our heads, or simply television entertaining more; This will happen completely unnoticed. Maybe we don’t follow the moon’s cycles, but nevertheless it’s still lighting the night. Although our technology may seem to have done useless, it must remember that not long time ago was the only light that illuminated the darkness of the night, and when turn off our light it will continue lighting.

dissabte, 29 d’octubre de 2016

Hypocrisy: to fight against climate change in home when own oil is sold far from your home

"... In the oil business, you can work neck up or neck down: the first option you enriches while the second you only get dirty ..."

Taylor Caldwell

Norway, Scotland
are countries that have signed the climate commitment in Paris (well, Scotland no because it belongs to the United Kingdom that is going out of the EU and it doesn’t find the time to do it), and was the first to get in implementation it. This news(read Norway's Prime Minister "champions global change" and Scotland 'leads UK' on climate change), even when the subscribers haven’t been able to ratify within a year it was very spread in the news media committed to the struggle against climate change. But these countries are oil producers, this is now one of its main line of business of these countries, and many of the policies against climate change income paid by oil sales.

Oil a long history of success

The Paris agreement was minimal common assumable, the result of the will of the governments of the USA and China, which are also major polluters, but that accounted for half of the global economy the ravages of climate change affects the directly. However this agreement doesn’t end up ratifying countries had been committed; and the two main promoters, one in China, despite the efforts it has not stopped the increase in emissions, and US are yet to win or not the promoter of the contest Miss Universe because everything had been torn signed.

The current world is mounted on two premises: the growth and infinity use of energy. The first is due of own animal condition, besides being the classic solution of the flight forward. This strategy has been the key to human progress, but is linked to another strategy isn’t so good however equally necessary in this context of growth at any cost: the war that allow to be able to make room when there is no longer room to grow.

The infinite energy is the dream of human power. Everyone as potential male or female alpha has the will and the fulfillment of one of the maximum satisfaction. We all know from experience that our desires with reality usually itch, everyone wants to win but only one wins, everyone wins and frankly if no one has won, won verse implies someone who has been. The powerful are those who win with real power, strength, agility, intelligence ... or rather mystical forces, control hidden, magic ... Hence the fascination with technology, this makes us with magicians, making we believe powerful.

Our awake dreams require huge amounts of energy, needed to produce the devices, or needed to let them go. But energy is not infinite neither free. All the energy we use is from the sun in real time or in fossilized. As I explained in "We must change the way we see energy" the sun's energy has a maximum value per m2 and you can only increase their increasing m2, which obviously will be at expense the available space of agriculture and wild nature. We must learn that solar energy is looking forests where fierce fighting between plants is a place under the sun, which cannot survive without him. The current consumption of energy is only sustainable thanks to the use of fossil fuels.

The commonplace in the industrialized world

Today hardening weather conditions are pushing governments to raise awareness of the climate problem and the need to reduce consumption of hydrocarbons. Now they have begun a race to renewables, having left them in the lurch and pursued. But the power of the oil companies’ investors, fearful of a general failure of these companies, without forget the massive energy-consuming companies (transport, telecommunications ...), make a signed commitment reduction is something very difficult.

It is very easy for relatively little populated countries with substantial income from exports and high-tech; can be achieved with relative ease commitments Paris, as I said earlier is minimal. But the good news needed not make us lose sight of Scottish and Norwegians emissions are doing at miles apart from where they are extracted.

In "Capitains and Kings" Taylor Caldwell puts in an oil tycoon voice of the early twentieth century American "... In the oil business, you can work neck up or neck down: the first option you enriches while the second you only get dirty ... ". The oil business is not in the wells, tankers, pipelines or refineries; This is in the waxed floors of Wall Street, the City and Tokyo, while polluting the planet; and believe me in the sterile environment of the stock brokers never transgress  emission protocols except that they smoke.