Bloc en català

dissabte, 17 de desembre de 2016

Another time again (Christmas 2016)

Felicitació en català: Ja hi tornem a ser (Nadal 2016)

If streets are invading of color lights and music sometimes without criteria, it means that month before Christmas is here.  A month where our budgets are never overflow because we haven’t budget, and joyfully is order by law.

Joy to the World as tradition and commercial centers order; if Christmas comes doesn’t mean that any of conditions which become the World as a Hell stop to run, but they are growing in relate. Besides us or in the other side of sea people just survive or die due natural or human causes. Our World has never been perfect and humans have an innate ability to crush it even more.

Solidarity is a human virtue which doesn’t allow to enjoy while our people suffer in front us. How can we enjoy the holydays if other people are suffering? So, solidarity initiatives arise everywhere appealing to the good heart and peace of conscience. But evil never rests and profits Christmas days when we open our hearts to the next, that evil can take our heard and sell it like minced meal. Unscrupulous takes advantage of the people’s goodwill and at the same time ridicule them. It then makes it easy to turn back the disadvantaged saying "all are equal" or "living book" because the pretext of the existence of miserable allows to show our own greed.

However, Christmas is different, and solidarity expiates sin consumer abuses. Without looking too much what is it, we made small contributions to all sorts of initiatives. May we seem them small but they aren’t for those who thanks to it alleviates suffering at least for a few days.

Christmas just like everything with him and goodwill. The day after January forget that there are people suffering and return to our everyday greed justified with the excuse of their own suffering. Would be nice if it was Christmas whole year but without colored lights and old fashion Christmas carols.

So, I wish you a Merry Christmas, even a day, and better in 2017 than it has been good the past, the best is always yet to come.

Last year postcard I think to exceeded my quota of ridiculous, so I attached a conventional Carol, I hope you like it.

Bon Nadal i Bon Any  2017

Feliz Navidad y Prospero 2017

Joyeux Noël et Bonne Année 2017

Buon Natale e Felice  Anno  Nuovo 2017

Merry Christmas and Happy New Year 2017

Frohe Weihnachten und ein gutes neues Jahr 2017

dimarts, 6 de desembre de 2016

Climate perceptions towards climatic evolution

The accumulation of energy in the air and oceans will set the temperature not how much CO2 we are emitting.

It says a sentence that to become rich man you don’t need a great amount of income, only need to save a cent more than what you waste, and let the time run; needless to say, if you are rich and spend a cent more than you earn sooner or later you’ll become ruined. The two statements everyone can understand and accept as true; however it may difficult to see that a cent of profit could become you a millionaire. This is because our perception of accumulation and time isn’t correct. When he looks in perspective by years and not realize that they are far from all time periods and just getting going; if this involves a sum or a subtraction is applied.

Pole melting an other prove of Globalwarming

As I said before it isn’t the same as a system is in balance or is stationary. As tightrope as we’re seating on a sofa are at a point where the sum of the forces, in this case gravity makes it scratch and not experience any displacement obviously this balance may be unstable and stable: Who is on the line a simple motion makes a sofa fell while we tear or hot water. Another issue is a steady state. While the balance implies stillness the other is a result of the change. A clear example is the air tubes that hold a ball suspended; the ball is actually falling, but the speed with the air produces a friction that slows proportional to this speed as happens to skydivers in freefall, to equalize the two forces (gravity, friction) but this acceleration continues to fall; as these air tubes breathe air we only need to provide enough flow velocity of the air is equal to the falling ball, the ball is a corridor that ran on a treadmill but does not move site. The temperature of the planet is this ball; Sun introduces an almost constant amount of energy on our planet (that's what we live) that the atmosphere back into space depending on the temperature, clouds, sunshine hours and greenhouse gases, being all these functional elements including dependents.

2 is a greenhouse gas more, as is methane (CH4), ammonia (HN3) or the same water (H2O); being water the most dominating of all them because it is the most abundant gas of them, current temperatures allows to move it in various states and their status as universal solvent liquid play a crucial role in climate and biology (look Feedback). Historical variability of our climate on a planet which has done more before of our arrived, proves that greenhouse gases have a dynamic independent of us. Unfortunately, this is something that we tend to forget, becoming this an recursive argument of skeptics and deniers climatologists, while it’s a common misconception of the fighters against climate change: We haven’t generated any new process we just altered a bit some existing process, but this little modification can lead us consequences of global dimension. Yes, only a small alteration, but we are doing it around the world and in a lot of time.

Accumulative or static growth

A process accumulative is a process with memory.
When newspapers or TV talk about a growth of 1% per year it seems a poor increase, because we see the less amount getting every year but we forget that 1% is applied on new amount getting with the current added to increase amount; therefore, we haven’t grown in 15 years a 15% but 16% and 170% in one hundred years. Thus, a small accumulation will become devastating because its effects aren’t scalable to not being linear.

Another effect very difficult to scale are the cross-dependencies between variables. Occasionally due to fashion, it appears the word synergy which means that two factors combined have effect greater than the sum of the effects alone. Most of these synergies has been found empirically because their combination will be positive or negative we can’t deduce it a priori. The reason of it is to haven't the summability of its effects; but further studies at posterior show that the combination actives relations between other elements more than the two crossed, the result increases or mitigates their effects. This effect we call feedback. The feedback produced stationary points called attractors in chaos theory, these usually create an effect of false stability because all elements combined create a closed situation within some parameters. We have a problem when one or more of these factors go out threshold because the consequences are completely unpredictable (see Butterfly Effect). When we think with weather stations, normal rainfall and temperatures are into one of these attractors, out here what could happen surely will not like.

People don’t imagine the immense effort needed to model future climate. In this regard many of the predictions being like wrong, not globally, but estimated and values. The blame for this is that all our models are parameterized values in the mid to late twentieth century; values that aren’t valid today. If we look at the following map (Sea level according to average temperature the planet) will observe an alleged sea level depending on the variation of the average temperature of the planet compared to pre-industrial values. This map is not bad but it has many errors. First remember that the pre-industrial era was the end of the Little Age of Ice (s XVI, XVII, XVIII and XIX) and therefore the temperatures were lower than normal, argument more used by skeptics. After the ice always melts at zero degrees nor more or less degree, so the temperature doesn’t imply more or less ice undone in any case be the time that will rid the ice who scored level; this level is an extrapolation from patterns of temperature distribution depending on the average temperature of the planet, but as I said patterns these are obsolete and have no idea of what will be at + 2C , to get an idea in Cretaceous the temperature of poles was practically the same as in Ecuador. The climate at + 2C isn’t a state, the time that we stay in this temperature is accumulative and we can achieve + 2C and nothing will happen but it will pass 10 years we can only could survive locked up in caves.

The climate emergency is taking to weather forecasts cooked runs
. States need data to make drastic reforms, which involve the dramatic change in the way we live. This is where I think the Paris agreement (COP21) is completely useless. Most of measures that would applied are late, inadequate and shameful periods; to fixe something that doesn’t depend on us as: the temperature; is an insult to our intelligence. Simply I don’t think so ignorant governments, only takes the temperature as euphemism for reducing emissions without the obligation to do it, each will reduce the amount of emissions it deems appropriate to achieve this temperature and if in 20 years they have been sticking.

Variability of Ice on Arctic sea, red is current year 

The climate is our only food producer and its kindness allows us to live; but it seems they prefer the money to eat or walk in streets quietly. Surely they forget that we can’t eat money.

diumenge, 13 de novembre de 2016

Trump victory: The Paris Climate Game Over

He promised to break the climate commitments and he will do it. Because he is convinced that it is a conspiracy orchestrated by China.

We can tell about ignorance, pedantry, superb, swagger and more other qualifies of next president of USA. Trump is lucky cretin which luck puts in the top of way. There are a lot of vegetables which are occupying relevant sites in society, and every casual event allows to allows perpetuate itself there, even making deadly mistakes. But this is a very simple explanation of his triumph, adding the luckily of to be in the correct site in the correct time, there are a lot of conditions that give him the victory. We can’t talk about all of them but I will say you the consequences of this result.

Too many people are horrified with the sentences and proposes tell for him in election campaign. However, these ideas are more close with his biography acts. Who tramples stronger often wins, and he always is who tramples strongest without seeing what breaks or who crushed. There is only a little problem: sometimes floor breaks. Until today he never broke the floor, and we see the size of his current floor, the consequences will be disastrous. One part of his new floor is the climate, a glass very weak for too much brutal boot.

Donald Trump the next President of USA

He doesn’t believe in the climate change (he isn’t alone). For him climate change is one of the conspiracies that hidden powers. In fact, he points China as promotor of this conspiracy; after said this was only a joke, unlucky his thinking isn’t far of this idea. What isn’t a joke is his attitude and of his collaborators in front climate threat. They not only deny but are betting hard in fossil when prices down due divest in it. In this way, their attitude is coherent as tobacco companies versus tobacco healthy: how you could win money with something that you know it will make suffering a million people something inmoral. Moreover, fossil energy will give great profits without climate policies until mankind blowdown.

But What does it mean Climate Change for more people? Really, for more people of USA means to lose work, to lose money and to lose his comfortable way of life. If you live in a tow, you can think in use public transport or even think in easy electric charge of your cars; but if you live in an alone home in Midwest where needs autonomous power generators to guaranty electricity, a world without oil is a hell. Fracking was selling as the democratization of oil business; more small saving scared by general bankruptcy of financial system takes it as lifesaver of their money; if we leave to burn oil the only thing that will burn will be their money. But there are more people which direct or indirect work and live of carbon (oil, gas, coal…), maybe they could find work after carbon age but they prefer that this age doesn’t end. More people is manifesting in streets calling for climate, but there are more in their homes praying for their future, climate will injure everybody but the close of a mine only the families of miners.
Mundial economy is threated for the end of carbon, obviously complete mankind is also threated if we’re still burning it, but it’s evident that climate change goes to bad and great fortunes don’t want to ruin for vain. Trump is the champion* of speculative economy which expects to get rich from buying bargains on divest oil, but not only, his message against to the official thinking captured people who are fired due the social injustice with is seeing due to government (something that is true). It’s paradoxical how people ruined surely for Trump’s speculative business, voted him as a liberator.

Trump is putting hands on the work, he begins to elect who compose his govern and there isn’t good news (Climate change denier is leading Trump's EPA transition team - CBS). We must no surprise, he has said several times that he will fire out** all Obama’s legacy (Trump can't unilaterally erase Obama’s climate rules. But he can refuse to carry out the Paris plan in the U.S. - New York Times). The result of it will be disastrous because USA is the second polluter of the world, without US reduction the work of the rest is near to vain; but the worse is the polluters as USA surely leave the Paris agreement because they sign due the pressure of China and USA, if Russia or India leave Paris is only time that European Union rest alone defending agreement which is also divided for this issue (for example Spain hasn’t still signed).

But for everybody are bad news. The oil marked gets the euphoria of the good times (Trump Victory Good For Oil Investments? What Do Futures Say? – Seeking Alpha). Markets which beginning losing, now are joining to the party. It doesn’t matter if our world is near to explode  the most important is the money wining today and if the sea will sink Wall Street under its water, then we will buy floats.

*in the middle age no everyone can fight to defend his/her reason in combat. Who defends you is your champion (wins or no)
** as his reality show in TV

dissabte, 5 de novembre de 2016

The year 2016 will end with three Super Moon

This phenomenon occurs occasionally but now it will take many years to re-produce

Artificial lighting has changed our way of life. Today humanity has abandoned the night and live in what we might call as a continuous vigil. Our society has eliminated the night, and with it the show that our ancestors have lived since our arrival on the planet over 100,000 years ago. So it’s no wonder that our language has so many references to heaven, but today literally ignore it as if we lived locked in a cave, but the cave is making of light.

The Moon and the Sun preside over our sky and our references. Although the first to be more variable in both the movement and its appearance has generated more fascination. The Moon is coquettish, illuminates the darkness; and unlike the Sun, he can look face to face creating a hypnotic effect who stares at the long. At other times these moons unusual so great would be seen and commented, but are now just a simple press note. In the era of space travel we have completely forgotten the sky and what given us its study, interpretation and fascination.

Harvest Moon

What is a Super Moon? For a very large moon. Obviously the Moon hasn’t grown but we see more and this is where we have to distinguish between the actual angular size and apparent size. Without objective tools of measuring size, our brain normally assigns a size with comparison, being very efficient with nearby objects but very awkward for remote, this is normal because as more far less information, and because the dangers and opportunities are nearby; so evolution give us the precision in a few steps.

Our eyes see angular distances that our brain becomes linear. That is the reason because objects are smaller as we move away from them, but their size doesn’t diminish with increasing distance but it does the angle that we see it. Moreover there is no way of knowing the distance to an object just by looking, but our brains estimated distances How does? Just doing the reverse of the above operation: you know that size has the object and estimates the distance so small that sees it. Logically from the estimated distances the size of unknown objects, which are precisely those that interest is also assigned (especially if it’s a predator and you want to eat). This is completely automatic and transparent to our conscious.

But when we talk about the moon, sun and stars the matter is very different because we have no reference. In this sense the size of the Moon is just something apparent. Everyone have in mind those huge moons (or Sun) in the African’s plateau or rising the shapes of mountains; however if this Moon is putted little more over the horizon seems it smaller than when it was just in horizon, have both the same size in photo. This is a psychological effect due in one way the result of psychological belief that the sky is closer than the horizon and another side effect vanishing point (see illustration). Therefore in summer we have the moon a low angle with respect to the horizon, it seems that full moons are larger than in winter.

False size due Horizon and vanish point

Although the Super Moon is something more because here there is a real increase in angular size (2016 Ends with Three Supermoons (Nasa)). The Moon does not orbit in a circle but does so in an ellipse with the earth in a focus (Kepler's second law). Besides the plane of the orbit it does not have a fixed orientation relative to the Sun which thing implies that the full moon does not usually coincide with specific points of the orbits and less always coincide with the point that we are interested in Perigee (closest point to earth lunar orbit). It difficult does not mean impossible and during the months of October November and December will match the full moon with perigee, and the difference with most distances we see the full moon is large enough to observe the difference.

It would be because of our streets’ light clogged the sky, because our everyday worries don’t let to raise our heads, or simply television entertaining more; This will happen completely unnoticed. Maybe we don’t follow the moon’s cycles, but nevertheless it’s still lighting the night. Although our technology may seem to have done useless, it must remember that not long time ago was the only light that illuminated the darkness of the night, and when turn off our light it will continue lighting.

dissabte, 29 d’octubre de 2016

Hypocrisy: to fight against climate change in home when own oil is sold far from your home

"... In the oil business, you can work neck up or neck down: the first option you enriches while the second you only get dirty ..."

Taylor Caldwell

Norway, Scotland
are countries that have signed the climate commitment in Paris (well, Scotland no because it belongs to the United Kingdom that is going out of the EU and it doesn’t find the time to do it), and was the first to get in implementation it. This news(read Norway's Prime Minister "champions global change" and Scotland 'leads UK' on climate change), even when the subscribers haven’t been able to ratify within a year it was very spread in the news media committed to the struggle against climate change. But these countries are oil producers, this is now one of its main line of business of these countries, and many of the policies against climate change income paid by oil sales.

Oil a long history of success

The Paris agreement was minimal common assumable, the result of the will of the governments of the USA and China, which are also major polluters, but that accounted for half of the global economy the ravages of climate change affects the directly. However this agreement doesn’t end up ratifying countries had been committed; and the two main promoters, one in China, despite the efforts it has not stopped the increase in emissions, and US are yet to win or not the promoter of the contest Miss Universe because everything had been torn signed.

The current world is mounted on two premises: the growth and infinity use of energy. The first is due of own animal condition, besides being the classic solution of the flight forward. This strategy has been the key to human progress, but is linked to another strategy isn’t so good however equally necessary in this context of growth at any cost: the war that allow to be able to make room when there is no longer room to grow.

The infinite energy is the dream of human power. Everyone as potential male or female alpha has the will and the fulfillment of one of the maximum satisfaction. We all know from experience that our desires with reality usually itch, everyone wants to win but only one wins, everyone wins and frankly if no one has won, won verse implies someone who has been. The powerful are those who win with real power, strength, agility, intelligence ... or rather mystical forces, control hidden, magic ... Hence the fascination with technology, this makes us with magicians, making we believe powerful.

Our awake dreams require huge amounts of energy, needed to produce the devices, or needed to let them go. But energy is not infinite neither free. All the energy we use is from the sun in real time or in fossilized. As I explained in "We must change the way we see energy" the sun's energy has a maximum value per m2 and you can only increase their increasing m2, which obviously will be at expense the available space of agriculture and wild nature. We must learn that solar energy is looking forests where fierce fighting between plants is a place under the sun, which cannot survive without him. The current consumption of energy is only sustainable thanks to the use of fossil fuels.

The commonplace in the industrialized world

Today hardening weather conditions are pushing governments to raise awareness of the climate problem and the need to reduce consumption of hydrocarbons. Now they have begun a race to renewables, having left them in the lurch and pursued. But the power of the oil companies’ investors, fearful of a general failure of these companies, without forget the massive energy-consuming companies (transport, telecommunications ...), make a signed commitment reduction is something very difficult.

It is very easy for relatively little populated countries with substantial income from exports and high-tech; can be achieved with relative ease commitments Paris, as I said earlier is minimal. But the good news needed not make us lose sight of Scottish and Norwegians emissions are doing at miles apart from where they are extracted.

In "Capitains and Kings" Taylor Caldwell puts in an oil tycoon voice of the early twentieth century American "... In the oil business, you can work neck up or neck down: the first option you enriches while the second you only get dirty ... ". The oil business is not in the wells, tankers, pipelines or refineries; This is in the waxed floors of Wall Street, the City and Tokyo, while polluting the planet; and believe me in the sterile environment of the stock brokers never transgress  emission protocols except that they smoke.

divendres, 8 de juliol de 2016

How much more incredible is a conspiracy more people believe in it

There is a growing flow of people who see conspiracy theories everywhere but the reality is the easiest explanation.

Between 20 to 30% of the world population doubt about man has never gone to the Moon, obviously those who’s knowing the human history, to these we would have been to add an approximately 10% who believe that really we have gone but not in the way which tells the story (later, on other trip which wasn’t recorded); and complete this group who believe in secret Encounters of the Third Phase on the Moon or the existence of hidden colonies on the far side. Although we have many proofs of this historical fact and now has been aerially photographed locations and what was left there (in fact until the ruts of the Rover); not having become more (read “That's one small step for a man, a giant leap for mankind” but we wait the second) and certainly none that are reading the article have seen any live, it helps create not one of the most importants events in human history.

Stonehenge on the Moon !!

"Seeing is believing". Although such religions speak of facts of which we have no evidence, and instead contradicts our daily lives. This is called "faith". We also often say that "faith moves mountains"; mountains, I reported you that no, but it gives a strong will that overcomes obstacles considered impossible beforehand. So humans have on the one hand a strong feeling of wanting to make sure that is real and that there, but otherwise a great ability to believe in things beyond everyday logic. Here is where it lays the belief in Conspiracy Theories.

David Hume showed that the principle of cause-effect is not real. Certainly the causality principle (every effect is due to a cause) is valid, the question is if we could be sure the real cause of some effect, and Hume said no; let me to explain. If I release an object in the air all will think that fall to the ground, but we have no guarantee that will happen, because nothing indicates that the object will fall if we let go. We can say that almost certainly will fall because we have a statistical law (the falling bodies) that implies, that is almost always an object to air this fall is released; and I speak not releasing a balloon that obviously will not fall (or other). Although it is precisely this principle that governs our mind. And not only that, our intuitive mind works linking everything with everything establishing relationships of things that have nothing to do. If we put these two things it is that two totally causal events (by chance) events will become causal (cause and effect), and the why of them it will be as amazing as our imagination is capable of generating.

We are addicted to magic. First because it is transparent: A implies B and amidst anything we can imagine. Science is open to any theory but it must pass a test, the magic does not need proof: it passes. The Conspiracy people generate complicated theories where one side believe show how clever they are to see what no one is able to see (the magic), and on the other satisfy that urge to be "someone", attributing their own unfortunately of to be "nobody" at the hidden forces which they have been able to uncover.

Mars is another place where Conspiracy people take more of their theories. A few days ago NASA released a video where a stone looked like the fossilized head of an alien fighter (frankly seems to me a crocodile). The case does not matter are three stones sculpted by wind and beaten by UVA that from another perspective is completely different. But our intuitive mind, for hazards and opportunities, has made an erroneous association and imagination has the rest. In internet fly a pictures and even films where show Mars with blue skies and even water (as film John Carter of Mars). All of this proves are FALSE because temperatures, air composition, gravity and atmosphere pressure are incompatibles with blue skies and liquid water; this data is measurable in the majority of astronomy observatories (mainly without any link with to any government, except pay the taxes as all the people) since XIX century; but It’s so beautiful, you know.

The martian cocodrile

The problem of Conspiracy thoughts is that we believe more in any wild story than what we see every day; and from what we believe now we make decisions in consequence. No matter what we believe about Mars or the moon; the problem is when reality as proves that our way of life is no good for us while we are at ease with it. Obviously to be second planet where we could go is calm for the conscience while we are destroying an only planet where we can live; but we don’t go at home so it’s easier to thing that government is laying about Climate Change or the extraterrestrial people are managing our society. The sad part of this question is that people who want to govern us are the first more times to recourse at these theories to collect votes. Racism, xenophobia, public enemy… everything is valid to challenge their objective.

As I said in “Ignore the evidence“ people listen who talk about is linked with own reality, because people doesn’t perceive reality but interprets it. We must be wary of the government but more of who is saying that distrust of them (even me).

dissabte, 23 d’abril de 2016

Volcanoes, when everything changes in a second

On 24 August 79 AD the city of Pompeii, in the Gulf of Naples, was buried by an eruption of Vesuvius. Vesuvius has a tendency to have explosive eruptions but the burial of Pompeii was something that had long been warning the volcano, in fact it had already erupted, something that attracted Pliny the Elder and his son to study. Ignorance caused the evacuation began already in the great eruption, trapping its inhabitants ash rain and pyroclastic flow. The eruption was described by Pliny the Younger, because his father (The Older) was one of the victims, the official date recorded by him is incorrect, it doesn’t agree with known dates and physical evidence in the excavations; but the document is the first scientific description of an eruption, and surely the date is a transcription error by not having the original document.

Pyroplastic Flow as which killed Pompeii people

Today the slopes of Vesuvius are populated by one of the most important conurbations del Mediterranean: Naples. Considering that the volcano is still active and much overlooked study shows that the Gulf is the result of it, it looks like reckless living there. It turns out that as Naples and Vesuvius there are plenty of large conurbations in idylls with volcanoes. The slopes of volcanoes (active) are often very fertile, think also they are high mountains which attract a lot of rain and snow and humans live where water is abundant.

Looked at from the perspective of someone who lives where no active volcanoes live or go visit a volcano may seem to run an avoidable risk. But as I said many people live in the shadow of volcano quiet lives without too many surprises. Likewise highly active areas such as the Ring of Fire, where Japan is located, are among the most populated areas of the planet. Whether living next to a volcano is no more dangerous than in the coast, and generally economically they are rich places.

But volcanoes are dangerous not only for its neighbors. A volcano ejects large amounts of material, which is suspended and changed, depending on the final activity which developed, the global climate. In this sense there is a type of volcano, which the lack of historical reference makes it go unnoticed, called Supervolcano its eruptive consequences can be devastating. Most of these volcanoes are off, but one that is active Yellowstone Park in USA. This Supervolcano whose crater is all National Park, has a boiler that is the size of a large county. This asset and just one of the attractions is this activity, such as its known geyser. Records of previous eruptions cover all of North America with ash deposits hundreds of meters. Since its last eruption 640,000 years has passed is the period of recurrence of this.

The explosion of Krakatoa in 1883 caused two years without summer. But Krakatoa isn’t supervolcano; a little farther north, in Sumatra, Lake Toba is a crater produced by supervolcano 75,000 years ago produced a severe glaciation for 6 or 7 years with average temperatures of 3C; this phenomenon almost extinguished humanity. Toba is almost an order of magnitude lower than Yellowston; whether we think about if e- phones bend or not, tomorrow the bowels of the planet can remove a third of the northeastern United States and the rest hang ash over Canada and Mexico. Many in front of this statement to be glad, but this circumstance will remove of maps one of main food regions of world, surely the global flooding ash would have decades without crops in whole World. Volcanoes seem very far, but they are the manifestation of the real world under our feet but we forget.

Alasca volcanoe eruption

Sometimes we reduce the climate risk at the greenhouse gas accumulation. This is true the current problem is the global warming and its unpredictable consequences. But climate has more other conditions which influence its evolution. The large conditions as greenhouse gases we could be avoiding if our greed and our myopia were working. The problem we have when conditioning factors work fast. The cometary impact or an eruption will change climate radically and irreversibly. Today we discuss how we could stop climate change and we put too much large terms, when we must thing that climate would change in a few seconds.